psychological stress and emphasy

Discuss factors that produce psychological stress and emphasize how they may vary from person to person.

  • Include ways in which the human body attempts to maintain homeostasis during its response to stress.
  • Identify some pleasant and unpleasant stressors.
  • Discuss how the definition of stressors varies amongst the class

Discussion Expectations:  

The minimum requirements for class discussions are to respond directly to the discussion prompt and to respond to at least two other posts, by other students or the instructor, by the end of the week. The discussion will close on the due date and will NOT be reopened for a late submission.

  1. Submit one main post responding directly to each part of the discussion prompt(s) by Thursday at 11:59 PM ET.
  • This should be a substantive response (between 75 -150 words minimum) to the topic(s) in your own words, referencing (using APA format) what you have discovered in your required reading and other learning activities.
  • You may use resources in addition to your textbook that supports your post(s); however, you must mention the source(s) that you used in your post(s) using APA format in-text citations and reference lists. You can review APA formatting here:

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concept of ABO blood groups

Step 1: In a two page paper

Explain blood typing and how it is used to avoid adverse reactions following blood transfusions

  • Discuss the concept of ABO blood groups.
  • Include the Rh antigen.
  • Summarize the antigens and antibodies associated with Type O, Type A, Type B, and Type AB blood.
  • Explain compatible blood types, universal donors, and universal recipients.

Assignment Expectations for Grading:  

1. Demonstration of critical thinking, scholarship, and ability to connect and apply the material 

2. Comprehensiveness and completeness of your responses 

3. Adherence to the written instructions 

4. Spelling and grammar

5. Provide 3-5 APA Style References to support your paper.

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overcome insomnia without drugs

Discussion Requirements

Please ensure that your discussion is well formulated correctly with proper grammar. Please check spell and grammar check your post before submission.  All discussion posts should be no less than 500 words.  Although your opinion is valuable, your response should include factual information supported by the literature in academic writing. An example of a well-formulated post will be included in the course.

ll discussion posts should include a work cite or reference sourcing your information. For APA formatting, please include an in-text citation.

Be sure to minimize the number of direct quotes within a passage and paraphrase when possible.  Work cited from sources should be referenced in an in-text citation and a work cited at the end of your discussion post. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. Discussion posts with 35% plagiarism will receive a grade of  0, with no exceptions.

Discussion posts not submitted by the due date will receive a grade of 0, with no exceptions.

Please submit one original post, and respond to at least two other learner’s postings to receive full credit.

Discussion Prompt 

Everyone at one time or another has had a hard time getting to sleep. What are some ways to overcome insomnia without drugs? Have there been any unintended or adverse consequences of the use of chemical sleeping agents?

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skill development in early childhood

Discussion: Lesson 5

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Objectives:  Identify examples of gross and fine motor skill development in early childhood; Define preoperational intelligence; Explain Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development for toddlers and children in early childhood.

Points Possible: 30


Briefly discuss each question (1 paragraph per question).

  1. Define preoperational intelligence and give one example.
  2. Define gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Give one example of each.
  3. Explain Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development for toddlers and children in early childhood.

Each paragraph should have a minimum of one citation. References should be included at the bottom of the assignment. APA citation

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method for calculating skin dose

I. Title:


Estimation of Peak Skin Dose and Its Relation to the Size Specific Dose Estimate







II. Problem or Hypothesis:


The CT Dose Index (CTDIvol) was originally designed as an index of dose associated with various CT diagnostic procedures not as a direct dosimetry method for individual patient dose assessments. There is no current method for calculating peak skin dose (PSD) using the key metrics provided from the radiation dose structure report of a CT scanner. Every CT study is required to output the kVp and mAs that were used, the dose length product and CT dose index volume which will all be shown on the CT console, but there is no direct method to go straight to the PSD. This project will test the hypothesis that the Size Specific Dose Estimates (SSDE) has a sufficiently strong linear relationship with PSD to allow direct calculation of the PSD directly from the SSDE.








III. Review of Related Literature:

The highest radiation dose accruing at a single site on a patient’s skin is referred to as the peak skin dose (PSD) which is related to the Computed Tomography dose index (CTDIvol) that is displayed on the console of CT scanners. However, the CT Dose Index was originally designed as an index not as a direct dosimetry method for patient dose assessment. More recently, modifications to original CTDI concept have attempted to convert it into to patient dosimetry method, but have with mixed results in terms of accuracy. Nonetheless, CTDI-based dosimetry is the current worldwide standard for estimation of patient dose in CT. Therefore, CTDIvol is often used to enable medical physicists to compare the dose output between different CT scanners.

Fearon, Thomas (2011) explained that current estimation of radiation dose from CT scans on patients has relied on the measurement of Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) in standard cylindrical phantoms, and calculations based on mathematical representations of “standard man.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of adapting a radiation treatment planning system (RTPS) to provide patient-specific CT dosimetry. A radiation treatment planning system was modified to calculate patient-specific CT dose distributions, which can be represented by dose at specific points within an organ of interest, as well as organ dose-volume (after image segmentation) for a GE Light Speed Ultra Plus CT scanner. Digital representations of the phantoms (virtual phantom) were acquired with the GE CT scanner in axial mode. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLDs) measurements in pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms were utilized to validate the dose at specific points within organs of interest relative to RTPS calculations and Monte Carlo simulations of the same virtual phantoms. Congruence of the calculated and measured point doses for the same physical anthropomorphic phantom geometry was used to verify the feasibility of the method. The advantage of the RTPS is the significant reduction in computation time, yielding dose estimates within 10%–20% of measured values.

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sexual reproduction and menopause

Question 1: Part A Reproductive Adaptations

Consider the variation in reproductive systems within the animal kingdom. These are discussed in the textbook readings. Select 1 or 2 traits and compare and contrast the human situation with other members of the animals kingdom. Two examples of traits are sexual reproduction and menopause.

Part B

Describe the development of the human embryo from the formation of the zygote to the point where the three embryonic germ layers develop. List the types of adult tissues that are derived from each of these germ layers. Be prepared to discuss how disruption early in development can cause major problems in the body of the developing individual.

Your discussions must be informed by the textbook.

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dynamic range of environmental qualities

Assignment 2: Homeostasis

Post your assignment to the Submissions Area for grading by the instructor by the due date assigned. The minimum length for this assignment is 1,500 words. Be sure to check your Turnitin report for your post and to make corrections before the deadline of 11:59 pm Mountain Time of the due date to avoid lack of originality problems in your work.

The maintenance of homeostasis is of major importance to all organ systems in the body and the overall survival of the individual. Explain how homeostasis is the maintenance of a dynamic range of environmental qualities rather than holding the internal environment at a set point. What would be wrong with a set point (say for body temperature) rather than a working range of temperatures?

The endocrine system is closely tied to homeostasis functioning. Give two examples of hormones (including their glands of origin and action) that play major roles in homeostatic processes in the body. What happens if these hormones are disrupted in their actions?

Also, look at how we adapt to survival in the outside world. Discuss how maintaining homeostasis gives us greater freedom of activity from dependence upon changes in the external environment. What happens during extremes that force our bodies out of homeostatic bounds? Give specific examples.

Why is the maintenance of homeostasis especially important during development of new humans within the bodies of their mothers? What can go wrong if specific homeostatic functions are disrupted?

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periodization for the triathlon

Read the attached article on training and periodization for the triathlon: TriathlonPeriodization.pdf
1. Explain how the the principles of exercise training are applied when preparing for a triathlon (Ex: individuality, specificity, reversibility, progressive overload, variation/periodization, overtraining, tapering).

2. Which of these principles may pose a problem for triathletes and which principles might naturally complement the triathlete? Explain your reasoning.
Read the attached articles on the health benefits of various forms of exercise:




3. Should one form of exercise (resistance/aerobic) be favored for the general, adult population for the goal of improving health and protection against disease? Explain your answer.


Due Thursday (11:59pm)
Minimum 300 words
Rely on peer-reviewed reading (text/research) as primary source of evidence

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the main tissue categories

1) Which of the following is not one of the four main tissue categories?

A) muscle

B) neural

C) bone

D) connective

2) An epithelial cell with cilia would have them on the ________ surface.

A) lateral

B) basal

C) apical

D) basolateral

3) Involuntary muscle includes ________.

A) skeletal muscle only

B) smooth muscle only

C) smooth muscle and cardiac muscle

D) smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and some skeletal muscle

4) Which is the most abundant kind of tissue in most animals?

A) connective

B) epithelial

C) blood


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underlying cause of the disease

Testicular Cancer


Your paper include the following:

1)Who is affected by the disease/condition (males, females, certain ethnic groups, etc.)?

2)What is the underlying cause of the disease/condition (e.g. which endocrine gland(s) is/are not working properly)?

Also include the symptoms of the disease/condition.

3)When does the disease/condition occur (from birth, during childhood, etc.)

4) How can the disease/condition be treated?

5)What is the overall prognosis (reproductive implications) for individuals with the disease/condition?


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