School of Health Sciences Thesis


Research Article Evaluation of the Response of HOS and Saos-2 Osteosarcoma Cell Lines When Exposed to Different Sizes and Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles

Konstantinos Michalakis,1,2,3 Athina Bakopoulou,1 Eleni Papachristou,1

Dimitra Vasilaki ,1 Alexandros Tsouknidas ,4 Nikolaos Michailidis ,5

and Elaine Johnstone6

1School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece 2Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA 3University of Oxford, Oxford, UK 4Laboratory for Biomaterials and Computational Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Kozani, Greece 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece 6Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Konstantinos Michalakis;

Received 12 September 2021; Revised 20 November 2021; Accepted 22 November 2021; Published 13 December 2021

Academic Editor: Aziz ur Rehman Aziz

Copyright © 2021 Konstantinos Michalakis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Osteosarcoma is considered to be a highly malignant tumor affecting primarily long bones. It metastasizes widely, primarily to the lungs, resulting in poor survival rates of between 19 and 30%. Standard treatment consists of surgical removal of the affected site, with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy commonly used, with the usual side effects and complications. There is a need for new treatments in this area, and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one potential avenue for exploration. AgNPs have been found to possess antitumor and cytotoxic activity in vitro, by demonstrating decreased viability of cancer cells through cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Integral to these pathways is tumor protein p53, a tumor suppressor which plays a critical role in maintaining genome stability by regulating cell division, after DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to determine if p53 mediates any difference in the response of the osteosarcoma cells in vitro when different sizes and concentrations of AgNPs are administered. Two cell lines were studied: p53-expressing HOS cells and p53-deficient Saos-2 cells. The results of this study suggest that the presence of protein p53 significantly affects the efficacy of AgNPs on osteosarcoma cells.

1. Introduction

Osteosarcoma is considered a relatively uncommon malig- nant disease. Nevertheless, it is the most common cancer arising from bone [1]. It usually affects adolescents and young adults. In recent years, much advancement has been made in treating osteosarcoma, which combines surgery, chemotherapy, and sometimes radiotherapy. Currently, the 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with osteosar-

coma is 60-70% [2–5]. The chemotherapy agents employed include cisplatin, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and methotrexate. Other cytotoxic agents such as etoposide and different com- binations have also been suggested in the literature [6]. Nev- ertheless, the use of these drugs has several side effects and complications including neutropenia, mouth ulcers, fatigue, severe diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The side effects can be very serious and commonly require hospitalization. Car- diomyopathies and irreversible lung fibrosis have also been

Hindawi BioMed Research International Volume 2021, Article ID 5013065, 16 pages

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