This exercise is designed to familiarize student s with the metric system through the use of metric units in the measurement of familiar objects.

Biology 103 Laboratory Exercise –
Using the Metric System
Objective
This exercise is designed to familiarize student
s with the metric system through the use of
metric units in the measurement of familiar objects.
Introduction
To make scientific data more easily unders
tood, scientists around th
e world utilize the
same systems of measurement. These comm
on systems of measurement are recognized
as the International System of Units (SI).
The System encompasses seven basic units of
measurement only four of which are of primar
y interest to biology students. These four
units are length, mass, volume, and temperature. These four units of measurement are
convenient to use because they are based on
the number ten and multiples, thereof.
Refer to the following table of commonly used
units for metric conversion in completing
the exercise of this exercise.
SI Fundamental Units and Derived Units for this Exercise
Physical Quantity
Unit name
Symbol
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Temperature kelvin
K
Volume cubic meter cm
3
or cc
Traditional Metric and SI Prefixes
Prefix Factor Symbol
kilo 10
3
(1,000)
k
deci 10
-1
(0.100)
d
centi 10
-2
(0.010)
c
milli 10
-3
(0.001)
m
Common Units of Mass and Weight
Mass lb oz. kg g
1 pound (lb)
1
16
0.4536
453.6
1 ounce (oz)
0.0625
1
2.836 x 10
-2
28.36
1 kilogram (kg)
2.204
35.3
1
1000
1 gram (g)
2.204 x 10
-3
0.0353
0.001
1
Common Units of Length
Length A in. m cm
1 Angstrom (A)
1
3.94 x 10
-9
10
-10
10
-8
1 inch (in)
2.54 x 10
8
1
2.54 x 10
-2
2.54
1 meter (m)
10
10
39.37 1
10
2
1 centimeter (cm)
10
8
0.3937 10
-2
1
Common Units of Volume
Volume mL cm
3
qt oz.
1 milliliter (mL)
1
1
1.06 x 10
-3
3.392 x 10
-2
1 cubic centimeter (cm
3
) 1 1 1.06 x 10
-3
3.392 x 10
-2
1 quart (qt)
943 943 1 32
1 fluid ounce (oz)
29.5
29.5
3.125 x 10
-2
1
Common Units of Temperature
Temperature
°
K
°
F
°
C
1 degree Kelvin (
°
K) 1
9/5 (
°
K) – 459.7
°
K + 273.16*
1 degree Fahrenheit (
°
F) 5/9 (
°
F) + 255.4
1
5/9 (
°
F – 32)
1 degree Centigrade (
°
C)
°
C – 273
9/5 (
°
C) + 32
1
*Absolute zero (
°
K) = 273.16
°
C
Materials Needed
Measuring sticks – *Links to
several different sizes of
measuring sticks have been
provided on the webpage for this lab exercise
Cereal box
Coffee cup
Medium-sized drinking glass
Medium-sized measuring cup
Bathroom scale
Textbook
A shoe
Thermometer
Ice
Procedure
Follow the directions for each exercise. Record your results on the data sheet.
A.
Measurements of Length
Obtain a meter stick. Measure your he
ight in centimeters. Convert this
measurement to meters.
Measure the long side of this page in
centimeters. Convert th
is measurement to
meters and then to millimeters.
Measure the length of the kitchen table and record the measurement in
centimeters. Convert this measurement
to meters and also to millimeters.
Measure the length of your shoe and r
ecord this measurement in centimeters.
Convert this measurement to me
ters and also to millimeters.
B.
Measurements of Volume
Part 1. volume in cubic centimeters (cm
3
)
Obtain a cereal box. Measure the leng
th, width, and height of the box in
centimeters. Calculate the volume of th
e cereal box in cubic centimeters
(Volume = length x width x height).
Part 2. volume in milliliters (mL)
Obtain a coffee cup, a medium sized drinking glass, and a medium sized
measuring cup.
Fill the coffee cup with water. Dete
rmine the volume of the coffee cup by
pouring the water into
the measuring cup (use metric scale on the
measuring cup). Record the volum
e in milliliters. Convert this
measurement to liters and kiloliters.
Fill the drinking glass with water. Determine the volume of the drinking
glass by pouring the water into the meas
uring cup (use metric scale on the
measuring cup). Record the volum
e in milliliters. Convert this
measurement to liters and kiloliters.
C.
Measurements of Mass
Weigh yourself on the bathroom scale. Reco
rd your weight in
kilograms. Convert
this measurement to grams.
Weigh your textbook (preferabl
y the biology textbook; it’s
really heavy . . .) on
the bathroom scale. Record the textb
ook weight in kilograms. Convert this
measurement to grams.
Weigh one of your shoes on the bathroom s
cale. Record the weight of your shoe
in kilograms. Convert this measurement to grams.
D.
Measurements of Temperature
Obtain a thermometer.
Handle the thermometer with care! This is a very
delicate scientific instrument
. Do not shake the thermometer!
Without touching the bulb end of the thermometer, determine the room
temperature in Celsius. Record this value on the data sheet.
Next, immerse the end of the thermometer in
to a glass of ice wa
ter. If possible,
hold the bulb of the thermometer agai
nst a melting ice cube. Record this
temperature value on the data sheet.
Last, hold the bulb of the thermometer tig
htly in your hand for several minutes.
Record this temperature value on the data sheet.
Biology 103 Laboratory Exercise –
Using the Metric System
A. Measurements of length
Your height in centimeters _________ cm
Your height in meters
_________ m
in millimeters _________ mm
Length of the page
_________ m _________ cm _________ mm
Kitchen table _________ m _________ cm _________ mm
Shoe
_________ m _________ cm _________ mm
B. Measurements of volume
Cereal box
length
_________
cm
width
_________
cm
height
_________
cm
volume
_________
cm
3
Coffee cup
_________
mL
_________
L
_________
kL
Drinking glass
_________
mL
_________
L
_________
kL
C. Measurements of mass
Your weight in kilograms
_________
kg
Your weight in grams
_________
g
Textbook weight in kilograms
_________
kg
Textbook weight in grams
_________
g
Shoe weight in kilograms
_________
kg
Shoe weight in grams
_________
g
D. Measurements of temperature
Room temperature
_________
degrees Celsius
Temperature at which ice melts (Ice water)
_________
degrees Celsius
External body temperature of your hand
_________
degrees Celsius
Is your body warmer or colder than the room air?
_________
E. Conversions
If someone weighs 52 kg, he/she weighs
_________
lb.
An object may weigh 8 lb. or
_________
g.
The weatherman said it would reach a high of 82 today, that equals
_________
°C.
Refrigerators usually measure about 4°F. This equals
_________
°C.
It is about 58 miles to Huntsville
from here. How far is it in km?
_________
km
A 10 k run is
_________
miles.
A 2 L soft drink contains
_________
oz.
An 8 oz glass holds
_________
ml of water.

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Imagine that it is 1874 and you have just been diagnosed with consumption, which we now call tuberculosis.

Part I – The Rabbit Island Experiment

 

Imagine that it is 1874 and you have just been diagnosed with consumption, which we now call tuberculosis. That’s what happened to Edward Livingston Trudeau. A few years earlier, he had nursed a brother who ultimately died of the disease. Now, he had a fresh doctor’s degree, a young wife, a new baby, and a terrible problem—a diagnosis that, in his time and place, was often a death sentence.

Dr. Trudeau knew all too well that a large number of people diagnosed with consumption ultimately died. Crowded together in cities like New York, where he was living with his young family, were tens of thousands of immigrants who were very glad to have their back-breaking factory jobs, but came home each night to inadequate housing, food, ventilation, sanitation, and little or no leisure or relaxation time. Consumptives labored for as long as they could draw breath as the bacterial infection in their lungs worsened and spread, eroding blood vessels and causing bleeding and poor oxygenation, or causing the lungs to fill with fluid until the sufferer might literally drown. Finally, exhausted consumptives would retire to their dank, crowded apartments to be nursed by their families until they died. Often family members would themselves become infected from their close contact and constant inhalation of organisms expelled by their sneezing, coughing, bleeding loved one.

E.L. Trudeau, however, was not poor, nor was he a member of the factory-worker class. He decided to travel to a place where he had spent a lot of time as a boy and a young man, the Adirondack Mountains of upstate New York. There he could rest a bit, think, take long walks in the open air, and make a plan.

Dr. Trudeau’s condition worsened during the arduous trek north by rail and carriage. In fact, the young man was so frail and sick that he had to be carried into the house of an Adirondack outdoorsman and wilderness guide. But a remarkable thing happened. Dr. Trudeau began to feel better. In time, he could hike and hunt and enjoy life with his friends. He resumed his correspondence with doctors and scientists. He sent for his wife and child, and began to build a medical practice in the distant little outpost of Saranac Lake. And he began to think about the cause and cure of what more and more scientists called not consumption, but tuberculosis.

In the 19th century, a portion of the medical community believed that diseases like consumption were caused by an unfortunate combination of bad “family blood” (after all, the poor were certainly not well-bred, and they were more likely to become sick and to die early) and mysterious causative agents as ill-defined as dank conditions, bad “humours,” obnoxious smells, and miasmas. But, in 1882, Robert Koch demonstrated to most of the scientific establishment’s satisfaction that the tiny bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) caused the disease known as consumption. Moreover, he could grow pure cultures of the finicky MTb and infect cells of experimental animals, and ultimately the animals themselves, causing the disease. Koch said: “If the importance of a disease for mankind is measured by the number of fatalities it causes, then tuberculosis must be considered much more important than those most feared infectious diseases, plague, cholera and the like. One in seven of all human beings dies from tuberculosis. If one only considers the productive middle-age groups, tuberculosis carries away one-third, and often more.” Koch’s work, along with Louis Pasteur’s, led to the more general “germ theory of infection,” which stated that infectious diseases were caused by germs, which was the name given to the microscopic organisms (we know them now as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites) that cause disease in people and animals.

Dr. Trudeau had followed Dr. Koch’s work with interest. He worked hard to learn how to culture MTb organisms, and was the first to do so in the United States. Intrigued by the correlation between healthy outdoor lifestyle and efficient anti-tubercular defense in his own case, he devised a simple experiment. The experiment spoke to both the MTb “germ” as sole causative agent of tuberculosis and a possible therapy for the disease. The experiment was described in his 1886 paper, “Environment in its Relation to the Progress of Bacterial Invasion in Tuberculosis.” The following is an excerpt from that paper:

First. What results ensue when both bacillary infection and unhygienic surroundings are made to coexist in tuberculosis?

Second. Are unhygienic surroundings when every known precaution has been taken to exclude the bacillus sufficient of themselves to bring about the disease?

Third. Is bacillary infection invariably progressive in animals placed under the best conditions of environment attainable?

Experiments.—Fifteen rabbits were made use of and divided in three lots, each set of animals being placed under conditions best adapted to answer in the results noted [in] the three questions already referred to.

Experiment No. 1. Five rabbits were inoculated in the right lung and in the left side of the neck with five minims of sterilized water in which was suspended a sufficient quantity of a pure culture (third generation) of the tubercle bacillus to render the liquid quite perceptibly turbid The needle of the Koch’s inoculating syringe was inserted subcutaneously on the left side of the neck and in the third intercostal space to a depth of thirty millimetres on the right side. These animals were then confined in a small box and put in a dark cellar. They were thus deprived of light, fresh air and exercise and were also stinted in the quantity of food given them while being themselves artificially infected with the tubercle bacillus.

Experiment No. 2. Five healthy rabbits were placed under the following conditions: A fresh hole about ten feet deep was dug in the middle of a field, and the animals having been confined in a small box with high sides but no top, were lowered to the bottom of this pit, the mouth of which was then covered with boards and fresh earth. Through this covering a small trap door was cut which was only opened long enough each day to allow of the food, consisting of a small potato to each rabbit, being thrown to the animals. So damp was the ground at the bottom of this pit that the box in which the rabbits were confined was constantly wet. Thus these animals were deprived of light, fresh air, and exercise, furnished with but a scanty supply of food while breathing a chill and damp atmosphere, though free from disease themselves and removed as far as possible from any accidental source of bacterial infection.

Experiment No. 3. Five rabbits having been inoculated in precisely the same manner as the animals in the first experiment, were at once turned loose on a small island in June, 1886. It would be difficult to imagine conditions better suited to stimulate the vitality of these animals to the highest point than were here provided. They lived all the time in the sunshine and fresh air, and soon acquired the habit of constant motion so common in wild animals. The grass and green shrubs on the island afforded all the fresh food necessary and in addition they were daily provided with an abundant supply of vegetables. Thus, while artificially infected themselves they were placed in the midst of conditions well adapted to stimulate their vital powers to the highest point attainable.

 

 

 

Questions

  1. The data from the experiment Dr. Trudeau describes is shown below in Figure 1. Graphs like Figure 1 are called survival curves. Write a narration of the figure describing the results of the experiment. Explain why the rabbits are emaciated in groups 1 and 2. (Please note: What Dr. Trudeau called Experiments 1, 2, and 3 are more like what modern scientists would call treatment groups 1, 2, and 3, and that terminology is used in Figure 1.)

Figure 1. Analyzing the Rabbit Island Experiment

 

  1. Calculate the survival rate for each group in figure 1. Use the following formula:

Percent survival = (surviving rabbits / # beginning rabbits) * 100

For example, if a group had began with 10 rabbits and only 3 survived, the percent survival would be 3/10 * 100 or 30%.  Which group has the highest survival rate?  Which group had the lowest?

 

  1. Use your results to write an overall conclusion to the Rabbit Island Experiment. Also develop an answer to each of Dr. Trudeau’s questions.

 

  1. Do Dr. Trudeau’s results support the germ theory of infection? Why or why not?

 

  1. What do the data suggest might be good environmental conditions for tuberculosis patients?

 

  1. What might be the effect of crowding on effective exposure rate of individual animals to MTb? (Hint: Would you rather board an airplane for a 3-hour trip where 2 out of 300 passengers had the flu or board an airplane where 200 out of 300 passengers had the flu?)

 

Dr. Trudeau’s little experiment had a big impact on medical thinking at the time. His experiment offered a rationale for opening his Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, which offered rich and poor alike a regimen of abundant nourishing food, lots of sunlight, plenty of rest, and as much fresh air as a person could tolerate. Hundreds were helped, and many similar establishments were opened.

Perhaps the experiment was so successful because of the care with which Trudeau had designed its components. It is important to identify an interesting and potentially approachable question or set of questions before undertaking an experiment. But it is just as important to devise a clever experimental design.

When we design an experiment, we choose the treatments that will be received and we control or manipulate them in appropriate ways. These treatments or manipulations are the independent variable(s). The observed or measurable dif­ferences in outcome for the treatment groups are the dependent variable(s). Suppose I want to know how much sunlight is needed to produce the sweetest oranges? Based on what I know about sunlight and photosynthesis, I hypothesize that the greater amount of sunlight an orange plant gets, the sweeter the juice of the orange. To investigate whether this is true, I might place one group of plants in the sun for 2 hours per day, another group for 4 hours per day, and nother group for 8 hours per day. At the end of the experiment, I could test for the amount of sugar in the juice of the oranges. The amount of time in the sun is the independent variable. The sugar in the juice is the dependent variable.

Questions

  1. What is the dependent variable in the Rabbit Island Experiment? Also, list all of the independent variables you can think of in the experiment. (Hmm, maybe Dr. Trudeau’s experiment was not so simple after all!)

 

  1. Often, scientists like to hold all conditions constant except one. Just varying one thing at a time makes it easier to analyze the results. Select any one of the independent variables you have listed above and design an experiment similar to Dr. Trudeau’s. State your experimental question, i.e., what are you trying to find out. Formulate a hypothesis. Then decide upon and write out a description of how you will manipulate your treatment groups (there needn’t be three; you could have two, or four—just design a good experiment!), and then imagine the possible outcomes, assuming survival is the dependent variable. Now generate two survival curves based on those imagined outcomes—one that supports your hypothesis and one that does not. Give possible percent survival rates for each experimental group under both outcomes.

 

  1. We respect Dr. Trudeau and all those earlier scientists who did the best they could within the contemporary understanding of the problem they addressed and utilizing the materials and technology they had at hand. Modern-day biologists like to talk about resistance/susceptibility genes and patterns of inheritance, rather than family blood. They think about infectious disease in terms of microbes and pathogenicity, rather than speaking of bad humors. They have identified vitamins and other nutrients that are abundant in some foodstuffs and lacking in other that are essential for optimal immune function. Without the benefit of such modern formulations, Dr. Trudeau, by a disciplined application of scientific curiosity and careful, clever methodology, shed light on each of these concerns, light that helped to illuminate the minds of scientists who came after. Still, a look at his original paper leaves us wondering, were the rabbits genetically identical? Probably not! Why? Were they all of the same sex and age? Couldn’t he have given the animals kept on short rations just a smaller amount of the same varieties of food available to the animals fed abundantly—after all, there might be some important nutrient missing in potatoes. In light of the title of the paper, why not measure bacterial numbers in the rabbits on post mortem rather than just survival time? (In a subsequent paper, he did exactly that.) Once you start critiquing an experiment from 100 years ago, or 10 years ago, or sometimes even last year, it’s hard to stop. Can you think of anything else you would have changed about the Rabbit Island Experiment?
  2. Suppose you were the Mayor of New York City in the 1890s/early 1900s and were convinced by Dr. Trudeau’s experiments that in your city a transmissible bacterium was causing tuberculosis and that poor living conditions and inadequate diet were adversely affecting the ability of hundreds of people to fight the infection. What sort of public policies might you try to enact in order to combat the public health menace? What obstacles might you encounter?

Part II – Tuberculosis in Social Context

 

E.L. Trudeau was quick to distinguish between a helpful therapy and a cure. He opened the Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, where poor and rich alike could come and receive the benefits of fresh air, plenty of sunlight, rest, and abundant but simple nourishing food. Hundreds benefited. Similar institutions opened up in the U.S., and the movement was already well underway in Western Europe. But the cure would only come in the 1950s with the discovery of antibiotics that were effective against the mycobacterium.

Questions

Choose ONE of the following questions for your group to answer.  Some outside research will be required – you will have to find an additional resource to help you answer this question.  Your answer must include at least one direct quote from this resource.  In addition, write an evaluation of the resource that you choose:  how did you find it?  Who wrote the information, and on what is it based?  What makes it a reliable resource?

 

Question 1:

 The curve shown in Figure 2 has three parts, from 1700–1800, 1800 to approx. 1955, and 1955 to approximately 1985. The data used to produce the curve are from Western Europe, but a similar one could be expected for the United States. From what you know of the history and culture of the United States and Western Europe, write a paragraph telling why each part of the curve looks the way it does. In looking just at this graph, what would you predict about the death rate from TB in 2000 and 2005?

In recent years, a combination of development of antibiotic resistant strains of MTb along with the creation of a reservoir of immunocompromised people by the worldwide AIDS epidemic have contributed to a resurgence of tuberculosis in the United States and a worldwide upswing in TB cases and deaths. This resurgence has been accompanied by a resurgence of interest in the disease by scientists asking new questions about the nature of true host genetic susceptibility/resistance genes for tuberculosis, about virulence genes within the mycobacterium itself which might offer new drug targets, and about the epigenetic factors that may influence disease predisposition and outcome in people with tuberculosis.

 

 

 

Question 2:

Tuberculosis causes nearly 2 million deaths worldwide each year. Between 1985 and 1992, cases of TB in the United States increased by 20 percent, as shown in Figure 3. Write a paragraph suggesting a few reasons why this resurgence of TB might have occurred in the United States.  The resurgence lasted until approximately 1992, then, in the United States, it began to abate. In 2005 the TB case rate in the U.S. was 4.8 per 100,000, as the U.S. medical community brought the epidemic under control (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, National Prevention Information Network, n.d.). However, in U.S. prisons and all over the world TB remains a serious health problem. In the U.S., zero tolerance drug laws have resulted in a burgeoning incarcerated population, which constitutes a significant reservoir of disease, with a far higher incidence rate than the general population. In New York prisons, the incidence rate of TB is 156.0/100,000 compared to the rate of 10.4/100,000 in the general population (U.S. Agency for International Development, 2009). Considering all you have learned in Parts I and II, discuss why these rates may be so much higher in prison.

We know a lot about how to prevent and treat tuberculosis. There is much more to be learned. In 2010, 8.8 million people in the world fell ill with TB and 1.4 million died (World Health organization, 2012).

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Where in the course resources can you find the information needed to guide your final project

 

PART 1: Provide answers to the following prompts.
1.      Topic

 

Write your topic here and provide a draft title for your project.

Cloning

 

Title: Artificial and Natural cloning Basic Facts

2.      Brief Description of Topic

 

Provide at least one paragraph (5–7 sentences) that describes your topic choice and what you will investigate for your final project.

Nature has its wonders. Some plants including some mono-celled organisms produce offspring that are genetically identified through what we call asexual reproduction, with the likes of bacteria. In this reproduction, an individual is generated from a copy of a single cell originating from the parent organism.

Natural cloning occurs in both humans and animals and is referred to as identical twins. Artificial cloning consists of therapeutic, reproductive as well as gene cloning which can also be done to both animals and humans. While each type of cloning is unique on its own, they are all related in some manner, but gene cloning is a bit different from the others which share many similar techniques although done for various purposes.

3.      Resources

 

Describe several sources of information that you will use.

The resources am planning to use includes; Textbook, Medical Journal, and websites, google scholar, Shapiro Library among others.

 

PART 2: Answer the following questions.
1.      In which module is the final project presentation due? Module 7
2.      Briefly describe your experience with presentation software such as PowerPoint, Google Slides, or Prezi. Have you previously used such software to make a presentation? I have previously used Microsoft PowerPoint many times throughout my various courses, and I love utilizing its fantastic presentation features.
3.      Where in the course resources can you find the information needed to guide your final project? Specifically, what is the name of the folder, and how can it be accessed? Course information-Assignment guidelines and Rubric
4.      List any questions for the instructor or any concerns that you may have about this project.  

None for now.

 

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What is common between the circulatory systems of organisms from samples 5, 6, and 7, but is different in organisms from sample 4?

Assignment: SCIE207 Phase 5 Lab Report

 

Title: Taxonomy Lab to Show Organism Relationships

 

Instructions: You will need to fill out the data table and answer a set of questions.

 

When your lab report is complete, submit this document to your instructor in your assignment box.

 

Part 1: Using the lab animation, fill in the following data tables to help you answer the questions that follow:

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1: Samples 1–5

 

Phylum/Class Sample 1: Chrysophyta Sample 2: Annelida Sample 3: Arthropoda Sample 4: Amphibia Sample 5: Aves
Common Feature          
Nutrition

How does the organism break down and absorb food?

         
Circulatory System (Transport)

How does the organism get what it needs to the cells (open, closed, diffusion only)?

         
Respiratory System

How does the organism get oxygen and release carbon dioxide?

         
Reproductive System

Does the organism use asexual or sexual reproduction (eggs, seeds, spores, placenta, and type of fertilization)?

         
Excretory System

How does the organism get rid of waste and maintain an ionic balance of fluids?

         
Growth and Development

Does the organism go through metamorphosis, develop in an egg or uterus, or grow from seeds?

         
Regulation

How does the organism control body processes (hormones, nervous system)?

         
Sample Organism          

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Samples 6–10

 

Phylum/Class Sample 6: Reptilia Sample 7: Mammalia Sample 8: Bryophyta Sample 9:

Pinophyta

Sample 10: Anthrophyta
Common Feature          
Nutrition

How does the organism break down and absorb food?

         
Circulatory System (Transport)

How does the organism get what it needs to the cells (open, closed, diffusion only)?

         
Respiratory System

How does the organism get oxygen and release carbon dioxide?

         
Reproductive System

Does the organism use asexual or sexual reproduction (eggs, seeds, spores, placenta, and type of fertilization)?

         
Excretory System

How does the organism get rid of waste and maintain an ionic balance of fluids?

         
Growth and Development

Does the organism go through metamorphosis, develop in an egg or uterus, or grow from seeds?

         
Regulation

How does the organism control body processes (hormones, nervous system)?

         
Sample Organism          

 

 

Part 2: Using only information from your completed data table, answer the following questions:

 

 

  1. What is common among organisms from samples 1, 9, and 10?

 

 

  1. What is common between the circulatory systems of organisms from samples 5, 6, and 7, but is different in organisms from sample 4?

 

 

  1. What is common in the respiration systems of the organisms from samples 2 and 4?

 

 

  1. What gas is taken in by the respiratory system of organisms from samples 1, 9, and 10? How is it used by these organisms?

 

 

  1. According to the table, which organisms are producers (autotrophic)?

 

 

  1. According to the table, which organisms are consumers (heterotrophic)?

 

 

  1. Which organisms have true blood?  Which have a blood-like substance?

v

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Define a hypothesis that is suggested by the data that are collected in the lab.

 

Assignment: SCIE207 Phase 1 Lab Report

 

Title: Understanding the Scientific Method: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

 

Instructions: Based on the virtual experiment, you will answer some questions and write a 1-page lab report using the scientific method.

 

When your lab report is complete, submit this document to your instructor in your assignment box.

 

Using what you learned on the lab animation, answer the following questions:

  • Define a hypothesis that is suggested by the data that are collected in the lab.
  • Complete a lab report using the scientific method.
  • What effect does the intensity of light have on the rate of photosynthesis (measured as the number of oxygen bubbles)?
  • Is it possible to examine the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration under controlled experimental conditions? Explain your answer in detail.

 

Part 1: Using the lab animation, fill in the following data tables to help you generate your hypothesis, outcomes, and analysis:

 

Table 1: Rate of Photosynthesis Measured by the Number of Oxygen Bubbles

 

Light Bulb Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
0 watts        
25 watts        
50 watts        
100 watts        

 

Part 2: Write a 1-page lab report using the following sections of the scientific method:

  • Purpose
    • State the purpose of the lab.
  • Introduction
    • This is an investigation of what is currently known about the question that is being asked. Use background information from credible references to write a short summary about the concepts in the lab. List and cite references in APA style.
  • Hypothesis or Predicted Outcome
    • A hypothesis is an educated guess. Based on what you have learned and written about in the introduction, state what you expect to be the results of the lab procedures.
  • Methods
    • Summarize the procedures that you used in the lab. The methods section should also state clearly how data (numbers) were collected during the lab; this will be reported in the results or outcome section.
  • Results or Outcome
    • In this section, provide any results or data that were generated while doing the lab procedure.
  • Discussion and Analysis
    • In this section, state clearly whether you obtained the expected results and if the outcome was as expected.
    • Note: You can use the lab data to help you discuss the results and what you learned.

Provide references in APA format. This includes a reference list and in-text citations for references used in the introduction section.

Give your paper a title and number, and identify each section as specified above. Although the hypothesis will be a 1-sentence answer, the other sections will need to be paragraphs to adequately explain your experiment.

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Which choices below best reflect the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?

  1. Which choices below best reflect the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?
    1. In an effort to address the shortages of nurses with undergraduate and graduate nursing degrees, nursing programs have been measuring student retention, attrition, and graduation rates.
    2. There is a paucity of research regarding the relationship of emotional intelligence, psychological empowerment, resilience, spiritual well-being, and academic success in the context of nursing students.
    3. The total score of the psychological empowerment scale represents psychological empowerment at that moment in time. This will not necessarily be the same when measured at a different point in time.
    4. Nurse educators need to examine ways to promote student success by improving our current methodologies and practices.

 

  1. Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article?
  1. Graduate prepared nurses will be needed to replace the large number of retiring faculty in Canada and the United States. In addition, nurse practitioners are needed to help alleviate the family physician shortage.
  2. The current rise in employment is improving forecasts for the future supply of registered nurses; however sizable shortages are still projected for the following decade in the United States.
  3. Many universities and admission departments dedicate substantial time and money for the recruitment and admission of nursing students.
  4. The purpose of the correlational study was to describe the relationship between emotional intelligence, psychological empowerment, resilience, spiritual well-being, and academic success and undergraduate and graduate nursing students.

 

  1. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following statements are important when considering the significance and relevance of a study’s problem and purpose? (Select all that apply.)
    1. Does it consider ethical principles in its design?
    2. Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study?
    3. Does it influence nursing practice?
    4. Does it identify the population to whom they intend to generalize?
    5. Does it promote theory testing or development?
    6. Does it identify extraneous variables?
    7. When considering the feasibility of a study’s problem and purpose, Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) suggest that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment. Which of the following statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article?
  2. Funding sources for the study were identified in the article.
  3. The author’s credentials to design and conduct research are fully described.
  4. 100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study.
  5. Evidence of protection of the subjects’ rights was mentioned in this article.

 

Questions 5 – 7: Review of the Literature.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 6 & 12.)

  1. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the review of literature (ROL):
  2. Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem
  3. Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem
  4. Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built
  5. To explain the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study.
  6. Select three MAJOR topics covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below:
    1. A descriptive correlational design was used. The study was conducted in a private Catholic University.
  7. The current rise in employment is improving forecasts for the future supply of registered nurses; however sizable shortages are still projected for the following decade in the United States.
  8. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between emotional intelligence, psychological empowerment, resilience, spiritual well-being, and academic success in undergraduate and graduate nursing students.
  9. In an effort to address the shortages of nurses with undergraduate and graduate nursing degrees, nursing programs have been measuring student retention, attrition, and graduation rates.
  10. The nursing profession should be concerned about attrition rates for masters and doctoral nursing students as well. Attrition rates for masters programs range from 10 to 75%.
  11. f. There is a paucity of research regarding the relationship of emotional intelligence, psychological empowerment, resilience, spiritual well-being, and academic success in the context of nursing students.

 

  1. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the “Methods”) is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article. This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and counting the number that meet this criteria.   Which number below most closely reflects the number of current citations in the ROL? (HINT-start with the year 2014 as the year published in the journal.)

 

  1. 10
  2. 15
  3. 20
  4. 25

Questions 8 – 10: Study Framework. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 7 & 12)

  1. Which of these statements best describes this study’s research framework?
  2. This study has an implicit framework, which is not fully developed.
  3. The conceptual framework supporting the research is underpinned by social exchange theory and Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy.
  4. The authors developed the study’s conceptual framework based on Watson’s Theory of Caring to describe the concept of caring for the self as a nursing student.

 

  1. What are some of the key concepts in this study’s conceptual framework?
  2. This study does not have any clearly defined concepts within a framework because it has an implicit framework.
  3. Nursing student depression is defined as a psychosocial phenomenon occurring within 12 months of starting in either an undergraduate or graduate program.
  4. The authors clearly identify the concepts of the framework in a map or model.

 

  1. Which one of the statements below is an example of a relational statement from the conceptual framework?
  2. Feelings of psychological empowerment will have an effect on student depression levels
  3. This study does not have any clearly defined relational statements because it has an implicit framework.
  4. Researchers found that managing emotions was positively correlated with academic success.

 

 

Questions 11 – 15:  Research objectives, questions, or hypotheses and research variables. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 5 & 12)

 

  1. The authors state that the research objective, question, or hypothesis was “describe the relationship between emotional intelligence, psychological empowerment, resilience, spiritual well-being, and academic success in undergraduate and graduate nursing students” on page 918. This is best described as a
  2. Research objective
  3. Research question
  4. Research hypothesis
  5. None of the above
  6. Which of these would be considered a MAJOR study variable (select all that apply)?
  7. emotional intelligence
  8. psychological empowerment
  9. undergraduate and graduate retention rates
  10. costs of student recruitment
  11. resilience
  12. spiritual-well being
  13. What is the conceptual definition (as defined in the review of the literature) of the following study variable: resilience
  14. The conceptual definition of resilience is not clearly provided in the review of the literature.
  15. The factors that influence nursing academic success need to be better understood.
  16. After students are admitted, they are to be afforded resources that will foster their persistence in the nursing program as well as promote their academic success.
  17. Admissions staff are tasked with the ever more difficult charge of distinguishing applicants who can be successful.

 

  1. What is the operational definition (as defined in the methods section) of the following study variable: resilience.
  2. Recruiting qualified applicants is just the beginning step in fostering program completion.
  3. Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
  4. The factors that influence nursing academic success need to be better understood.
  5. The Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS).
  6. Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study? (Select all that apply.)
  7. Age
  8. Education level
  9. Years of nursing experience
  10. Marital status
  11. Admission cut-off criteria
  12. Race

 

Questions 16- 19:  Research Design (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 1, 8, & 12)

  1. Which phrase best describes the research design of this study? (Select the three that apply.)
  2. Descriptive
  3. Correlational
  4. Nonexperimental
  5. Quasi-experimental
  6. Experimental
  7. Mixed methods

 

  1. Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study?
  2. a. Cross-sectional design
  3. Longitudinal design
  4. None of the above

 

  1. Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section?
  2. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) used in the study may be considered a treatment or intervention.
  3. 516 students were invited to participate in the intervention.
  4. A control group of accounting students were also asked to complete the survey.
  5. This study was not designed with a treatment or intervention.

 

  1. Does the author specifically mention that a pilot study was done prior to conducting this study?  (Hint: look at the words “prior to this study”.)
  2. Yes
  3. No

 

  1. The authors indicate on page 920 of the article that the institutional review board (IRB) authorization was acquired. This indicates than an IRB gave approval to conduct the research. In addition, anonymity and confidentiality was protected.  Per Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following would NOT be considered essential information for informed consent?  (Select all that apply.)

 

  1. a statement of the research purpose and any long-term goals of the study
  2. a copy of the abstract of the article that will be used in the publishing journal.
  3. an explanation of the procedures to be followed in the study
  4. a complete list of references to be used in the study.

 

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