Science of Zoology and Evolution

Science of Zoology, Evolution, and the Scientific Method

BIO 103: Chapter 1 Objectives


biology, zoology, evolution, microevolution, macroevolution, natural selection, artificial selection, phylogeny, ontogeny, sorting, scientific method, hypothesis, null hypothesis, controlled experiment, control group, experimental group, experimental (independent) variable, dependent variable, scientific theory, scientific law, experimental method, comparative method, biological species, speciation, fossil, homology, adaptive radiation, speciation, extinction, mass extinction



After attending lectures and studying the chapter, the student should be able to:

1. Define zoology and be able to apply the term correctly


2. Provide examples of animal diversity


3. Identify and apply Evolutionary Theory


4. Identify the concepts and provide examples of microevolution and macroevolution


5. Explain natural selection and how it causes evolution


6. Explain artificial selection and how it can cause evolution


7. Explain why evolution occurs at the population level


8. Explain the basic contributions and importance of Lamarck with respect to evolution. Also explain transformational evolution and any potential fallacies with that concept


9. Explain and identify the basic concepts, importance and contributions of Lyell (as related to age of earth)


10. Explain Darwinism and apply the five individual components in Darwin’s Theory of Evolution


11. Explain and identify any current modifications to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution


12. Explain the importance of the Galapagos Islands (i.e. finches) with respect to Darwin’s ideas on natural selection


13. Explain Wallace’s contribution to evolution


14. Explain and apply the five factors or “forces” of evolutionary change: recurring mutation, genetic drift, migration, natural selection, and interactions of these factors


15. Explain a mass extinction and identify the number of mass extinctions thought to have occurred on earth


16. Explain the relationship between speciation and extinction


17. Explain the relationship between mass extinctions and adaptive radiation


18. Explain the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny


19. Identify and provide examples of homology


20. Identify the evidences of evolution: fossil record, biogeography (adaptive radiation and parallel adaptation, comparative embryology and anatomy (homologous and vestigial structures), comparative molecular biology


21. Explain why the scientific method is used in science.


22. Identify the major steps of the scientific method (in order) and be able to recognize and apply the steps of the scientific method.

1) Identify the following groups in an experimental design: control group and experimental group

2) Identify controlled variables, experimental variables and dependent variables in an experiment

3) Explain why controlled experiments are so important in science and how field work can impact controlled experiments.

4) Identify and write a hypothesis

5) Identify and formulate a conclusion from experimental data and explain how that conclusion relates to a hypothesis

6) List a scientific theory

7) List a scientific law

8) Explain the difference between a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law

9) Explain why a hypothesis is either supported or disproven, rather than proven or disproven.

10) Explain the difference between qualitative data and quantitative data, including which is more appropriate in science, and recognize examples of each category of data


23. Explain why it is important for science to be dynamic

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