Electric organ discharges-electric images


Topic: [your topic here] [your name here]

[today’s date]



Assad C, Rasnow B, Stoddard PK (1999) Electric organ discharges and electric images

during electrolocation. J Exp Biol 202:1185-1193


Heiligenberg W (1991) Neural Nets in Electric Fish. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA


Stoddard PK (1996) Vocal recognition of neighbors among territorial passerines. In:

Kroodsma DE, Miller TE (eds) Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic

Communication in Birds, vol 3. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY


Note the following:


1. Bibliography is alphabetized by last name of the first author.


2. The first entry is a journal article, the 2nd is a book, and the third is a chapter in an

edited book. Note the format and use it EXACTLY.


3. The first line is OUTDENTED. Do not outdent with tabs. Instead, adjust the margins

at the top of the window of your word processor to indent subsequent lines in the



4. Capitalization: In paper’s title, just the first word, proper names, and genus are

capitalized. Some electronic databases capitalize the title or authors. You should

not. Scientific names are italicized.


5. Use of initials in the authors’ names.


6. Minimalist punctuation.


7. Year of publication follows authors.



How to cite references in the body of your paper.


1. Use name and date format, not numbers (Stoddard 2006). Note that the author’s

initials are not included.


2. For one or two authors, include the last names, for example (Markham & Stoddard

2005, Stoddard 2003.


3. For three or more authors, use “et al.” which is an abbreviation of the Latin “et alia”

meaning “and others” (Stoddard et al. 2003). Note the period after “al.”, not “et”.


4. If you have multiple papers by the same authors in one year, list them as “a” and “b”,

for example (Assad et al. 1999a) or (Assad et al. 1999b).

"Is this question part of your assignment? We can help"