Biodiversity case study



Since living things are part of an

ecosystem and all the things that

construct it, they are affected by

everything in that system. Weather and

other living organisms could affect living


Successful organisms will manage to

make the required changes and

modifications that allow them to meet the current

conditions. The changes are triggered by modification in the

genetic inheritance to survive. If we look at the organism

that adapted to the condition we will find some differences

from the original population, and the one the adopted would

be the fit.

Reviewing the literature, we have many theories that try to

explain adaption and the way organisms evolve. The natural

selection theory provides some explanations, other theories

use fossils, comparative anatomy, and finally DNA studies to

trace and recognize evolutions.



When we survey living things we find a massive number of

different things, they have so many similarities and some

differences among them. Scientists were looking for a

system that will allow them to group and classify all those

living things and avoid confusion and conflicts among living

things. Taxonomy was the science that solves this problem.

Taxonomy recognized and identified living things and placed



them in groups from the most to the least level. At each

level, the groups have similarities among them. This was

very useful because of the great number of different


Taxonomy starts by identifying the Domains as the most

inclusive level. Three domains were identified and they are:

1. Bacteria: contain microscopic unicellular prokaryotes

2. Archaea: bacteria that look like unicellular bacteria

3. Eukaryote: includes most of the known living organisms

in which they are further organized into kingdoms.

Five kingdoms are recognized as the Monera, Protista, Fungi,

Plantae, and Animalia. Each kingdom is then grouped into

different phylum’s and each of them is broken into several

classes. Each class contains different orders and each order

has several families, and family into genus and finally each

genus have several species.


The Scientific Method

The processes of science

come via a mechanism that

builds knowledge utilizing the

scientific method. This

mechanism starts from just an

observation and leads to a

theory or a law.

Observation is the first step

when a researcher noticed a

condition that he cannot

explain or understand. This



will trigger the process in which he will start to investigate

the conditions. The investigation starts reviewing the

previous data and literature to see if this observation was

addressed earlier in the literature and will help him in the

formulation of his research questions or what is known as

the hypothesis.

After proposing the research questions the research will

design an experiment to test the questions. At the end of

the experiment the data and results will be collected and

references about the questions, which lead him to reject,

some hypothesizes and accept the others.

The final stage would be to conclude the observation, this

conclusion will explain them, and several conclusions

usually will create a theory. When the theories reach more

acceptance via more scientific evidence then it will be

known as a law.

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