BEHS 364 Alcohol in U. S. Society Final Examination

Match Questions – 4 points eachThe public response to excessive drinking has been a mix of two general approaches:Directly reduce drinking + restrict availability/raise pricesIndirectly reduce drinking + increase availabilityDirectly reduce drinking + lower priceNone of the aboveEarly in U.S. history, Alexander Hamilton proposed a ____________ to decrease heavy drinkingProhibitionA whiskey taxAbstinenceNone of the aboveDr. E. M. Jellinek was a researcher that:Is considered the godfather of the alcoholism movementIdentified small portions of the population vulnerable to alcoholSuggested that someone with the innate propensity for alcoholism would actually develop the disease depends in part on living in an alcohol wet or dry environmentAll of the aboveDrinkers are:Better educated, richer, less ambivalentPoorly educated, poorer, ambivalentExactly the sameNone of the aboveFederal funding for research and treatment of alcoholism expanded and became institutionalized with the creation of :Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA)Narcotics Anonymous (NA)None of the aboveToday, the “neo-prohibitionist” label suggests people that:Are moralistic and naïveSeek to reduce alcohol abuse by advocating controls on supply and higher taxesPromote deregulationBoth a and bAt the time of the Civil War liquor was used for:DrinkingFluid for lampsIndustrial productsAll of the aboveThe national prohibition was popularly known as the:Volstead ActWilson ActWebb-Kenyon ActReed ActEnforcement of the Volstead Act was done by:CongressPresidentTreasury DepartmentHomeland SecurityThe class of people that maintained the same level of drinking throughout Prohibition was:Middle and Upper classWorking classPoorNone of the aboveThe most successful self-help organization of our time is:Alcoholics AnonymousNarcotics AnonymousAl-AnonMarijuana AnonymousE. Morton Jellinek:Identified 5 varieties of alcoholismWrote “The Disease Concept of alcoholism”Offered a science-based understanding of alcoholismAll of the above______________ was another proponent of the disease model who suggested that uncontrolled, maladaptive ingestion of alcohol is not a disease in the sense of a biological disorder; rather alcoholism is a disorder of behavior:George VaillantE.M. JellinekStanton PeeleHerb FinagaretteThe case for a genetic basis to alcoholism is strengthened by the observation:Identical twins are more alike with respect to the presence or absence of alcoholism than are fraternal twinsFraternal twins are more alike with respect to the presence or absence of alcoholism than are identical twinsIdentical and fraternal twins are equally alike with respect to the presence of alcoholismIdentical and fraternal twins are equally alike with respect to the absence of alcoholismProject Match was an evaluation study that:Involved a 12 week period of individual outpatient sessionsRandomly assigned patients to 1 of 3 approachesEvaluated cognitive-behavioral, motivational enhancement, and 12 step facilitation therapiesAll of the aboveAn intrinsic limitation to the medical approach is that:It is not only alcoholics that cause and suffer abuse by their drinkingNo treatment requires voluntary compliancePrevention drugs are always effectiveAll of the aboveFrom a population-health perspective:Data on overall alcohol sales is irrelevantData on the entire distribution of consumption is of interestNeither abstinence or heavy drinking have health implicationsAll of the aboveGenerally, it is easier to estimate ____________ consumption with some degree of accuracyIndividualThe distribution of individual drinkingAggregateNone of the aboveThe 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) provided an estimate of pro capita consumption that vis about __________ of recorded pro capita sales:HalfDoubleEqualNone of the aboveThe prevalence of drinking peaks in the early ________ for both males and females:Teens20’s30’s40’sIn classical liberal thought, a choice is of greater public concern if the resulting harm is to:The person making the choiceBystandersSociety overallBoth a and bPublic health stands closer to a __________ ethic of social justiceCommunitarianIndividualisticLiberalConservativeA wide array of experiments document that ____________ of consequence occurrence  seems to contradict the presumption of a rational choiceSeverityTimingOrderLackThe liberal tradition embodied in the harm principle claims to promote the greatest good by:Leaving the adult individual free to make his own choices as long as others are not harmedPromoting improvement of choices by government regulationDenies the intrinsic value of freedomNone of the aboveInformation provision includes:Warning labels on alcoholic beveragesPublic service ads on television and radioAlcohol curriculums in school health classesAll of the aboveThe Willingness to Pay (WTP) method contends:The value of a persons life and health is measured by the value placed on enjoying a safe environmentEnjoyment is subjective and involves decisions that require judgment about the value of small increases or reductions in the probability of deathBoth a and bNeither a or bThe beer industry contends that it:Directly and indirectly employs approximately 1.78 million Americans with 54 billion in wages and benefitsHas an economic ripple effect that benefits packaging manufacturers, shipping companies, agriculture, and other business’s that depend on itBoth a and bNeither a or bThe economist Gary Beaker defined the optimal crime rate as:Zero crimeThe rate associated with a balancing of marginal costs and benefits of law enforcementBoth a and bNeither a or bIn reference to alcohol control measures, the federal government:Licenses and collects excise taxes from importers and manufacturersMonitors product purityPolices illegal production and traffickingAll of the aboveIn 2005, the Supreme Court ruled that states could ban direct shipment of wine:For out of state producers onlyFor in state producers onlyFor out of state producers only if they did the same for in state producersNone of the aboveTaxes have unique advantages as alcohol-control measures since they:Help control alcohol abuse and its consequences without a direct restriction on freedom of choiceProvide a possibility for a calibrated response to the cost of alcohol related problems by being set high, low, or anywhere in betweenEnhance public revenuesAll of the aboveFederal and state excise taxes:Are unit taxes defined in terms of volume rather than product valueAre paid by the manufacturer or distributorHave no automatic inflation protectionAll of the aboveA number of empirical studies have found that alcohol and marijuana are:SubstitutesComplementsNot relatedAll of the aboveAlcohol taxes are “regressive” taxes in that:On average a larger percentage of the income of poorer households goes to pay this tax than in richer householdsOn average a smaller percentage of the income of poorer households goes to pay this tax than in richer householdsOn average the same percentage of the income of poorer households goes to pay this tax than in richer householdsNone of the aboveA 1985 literature summary concludes:Most drinkers prefer beer and those drinkers are more likely to drink/driveBeer is disproportionately preferred by higher risk groupsBoth a and bNeither a or bIn addition to alcohol control there are two other vital approaches for public intervention:Time, place, and circumstances + harm reductionTime, place, and circumstances + abstinenceAlcoholics Anonymous + Disease ModelNone of the aboveHarm reduction:Helps make the world less safe for drunksHas goal to ease some of the natural consequences of excessive drinkingDemands total abstinenceAll of the aboveThe federal government has pushed for additional restrictions on youthful drinking by:Requiring campuses and military installations to enforce the minimum legal drinking age lawsHaving states adopt zero tolerance for teen driversBoth a and bNeither a or bTrue or False Questions – 2 points eachDuring the last half century, the public policy to reduce excessive drinking has largely neglected restricting availability and raising the price of alcohol.Congress adopted a national minimum drinking age of 21 in the hope of reducing the fatal accident rate for teen drivers.In the 1880’s, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union denounced alcohol itself as the problem, rather than the abuse of it.Dr. Edward Jellinek recognized the importance of social context in the development of alcoholism.Effective alcohol prevention programs address only the issues of those community members dependent on alcohol.Alcohol taxes have received far more attention by state legislatures than cigarette taxes.Over twice as many Americans drink as smoke.Prohibition was established by the 18th Amendment.According to the textbook, Prohibition was destined to failure as it attempted to legislate morality.The Volstead act banned all beverages containing more than 10% alcohol.By the late 1920’s, one million gallons of Canadian liquor made its way into the U.S. per year.The Women’s organization for National Prohibition Reform campaigned to strictly enforce Prohibition.51.  The economist Warburton contends that the business, professional, and salaried class sustained their average pre-prohibition alcohol consumption levels throughout prohibition.52.  Jellinek’s designation of alcoholism as a “disease” was a new idea.53.  The AA tenet is that alcoholics are “allergic” to alcohol.54.  The disease label may help to remove the stigma associated with alcoholism.55.  Vaillant noted undergoing detoxification as a marker for those early on the continuum of alcohol related problems.56.  The “flushing response” is common among some African populations.57.  Biology is irrelevant to alcoholism.58.  Inpatient treatment programs are the least costly form of alcoholism treatment.59.  Cognitive behavioral therapy seeks to develop the patient’s coping skills.60.  12-step facilitation identifies and disputes the patient’s irrational belief system.61.  The drug disulfuran (Antabuse) has proven to be of major therapeutic benefit in curing alcoholism.62.  3.4% of the adult public is currently dependent by DSM-V definition.63.  Prevention of harmful drinking patterns and alcoholism prevention efforts are unimportant today.64.  Beers are fermented from grains before the starch in them is converted to sugar.65.  Distilled spirits contain between 40% and 50% alcohol.66.  A standard drink of beer (12oz.), wine (5 oz.), or distilled spirits (1.5oz.) provides the same dose of alcohol.67.  Surveys tend to overestimate alcohol consumption by a wide margin.68.  The heaviest drinkers account for the bulk of alcohol consumption.69.  The heaviest drinkers are of little consequence to the sales and profitability of the alcohol beverage industry.70.  Blacks are more likely to report drinking than Hispanics or Whites.71.  People with college degrees are less likely to drink.72.  People in the two highest income brackets are more likely to drink than those in the lowest income group.73.  Youths drink more than the elderly.74.  The use of government authority to restrict commerce and choice in the name of enhancing safety is universally accepted and approved in the U.S.75.  The threshold for intervention by government should rightly be lower than the threshold for intervention by employers and friends.76.  The individualistic perspective was suggested by President Kennedy when he stated, “ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”77.  A negative externality occurs when effects are harmful.78.  Self – Management is a costly and imperfect craft, and some people are better at it than others.79.  The “moral hazard” effect is an intended and desired consequence of harm reduction.80.  The cost of illness (COI) method is generally preferred over the willingness to pay (WTP) by economists for translating injury and death into dollars.81.  Our willingness to pay for enhanced safety for ourselves and loved ones comprises the entire picture since we have no financial stake in the health and safety of strangers.82.  Individual production and consumption are consistent and remain the same over life course.83.  Alcohol is currently under-taxed and in some respects under-regulated.84.  Taxes and other restrictions on alcohol supply are indiscriminate.85.  The array of DUI interventions championed by MADD and other advocacy groups has had no effect on DUI incidence and fatality rates.86.  Alcohol taxes are now too low.87.  Lower alcohol prices are conducive to lower rates of underage drinking.Essay Questions – 50 points eachPay attention to the point values for the essay questions as they do vary. The essay questions have a high point value. Be sure to put adequate work into the answer referencing the point value of each question. When answering the essay questions Read, Reflect, Outline, and Write. Do not cut and paste or provide word for word reproduction of the assigned writings. Even if cited word for word reproduction or cut and paste are unacceptable as an examination answer. Provide your personal understanding of these concepts after reviewing the readings material88.  Describe in detail the effects of alcohol and other substance use on intimate partner violence. Detail its prevalence, epidemiology, and critical issues. Explain the various relationships between alcohol/substance use and intimate partner violence. Include an explanation of the association between chronic substance abuse and intimate partner violence as well as its impact.89.  Describe in detail the 6 assessment dimensions of the ASAM patient placement criteria. Discuss their impact on proper placement and treatment planning.90.  Describe Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), its origins, history, and development. Detail the AA program of recovery, philosophy, and how it works.91.  Describe in detail group therapy. Include a discussion of its curative factors, history, and processes. Note the various types of therapy groups and how they work.92.  Describe in detail the Stages of Change denoting each stage and describing the paths and processes associated with this model and each stage.

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